5 principles of mu tazila pdf

Arabic term referring to the consensus or agreement of the Muslim scholars basically on religious issues. The hadith of Muhammad which states that “My ummah will never agree upon an error” is often cited as a proof for the validity of ijmā’. Malik ibn Anas held the view that the religiously binding consensus was only the consensus of Muhammad’s companions and the direct successors of those companions 5 principles of mu tazila pdf the city of Medina. According to Iraqi academic Majid Khadduri, Al-Shafi’i held the view that religiously binding consensus had to include all of the Muslim community in every part of the world, both the religiously learned and the layman.

Abu Hanifa, Ahmad bin Hanbal and Dawud al-Zahiri, on the other hand, considered this consensus to only include the companions of Muhammad, excluding all generations which followed them, in Medina and elsewhere. Views within Sunni Islam branched off even further in later generations, with Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi defining even a simple majority view as constituting consensus and Ibn Taymiyyah restricting consensus to the view of the religiously learned only. Initially, for Shia the authority of the Imams rendered the consensus as irrelevant. The ancient Mu’tazilite sect did not consider consensus to be a valid source of law, primarily due to their rationalist criticism of the first generation of Muslims, whom the Mu’tazila viewed as possessing defective personalities and intellects. Abu Dawood, and others with slightly different wordings. Ahmad Hasan, “The Doctrine of Ijma’: A Study of the Juridical Principle of Consensus,” New Delhi, India: Kitab Bhaban, 2003, pg.

Muhammad Muslehuddin, “Philosophy of Islamic Law and Orientalists,” Kazi Publications, 1985, p. Majid Khadduri, Introduction to Al-Shafi’i’s al-Risala, pg. Mansoor Moaddel, Islamic Modernism, Nationalism, and Fundamentalism: Episode and Discourse, pg. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005. Mohammad Omar Farooq, “The Doctrine of Ijma: Is there a consensus? Jarir al-Tabari’s al-Bayan ‘an Usul al-Ahkam and the Genre of Usul al-Fiqh in Ninth Century Baghdad,” pg. Leuven: Peeters Publishers and the Department of Oriental Studies, 2004.

Muhammad made a speech at Ghadir Khumm in which he said, only God can appoint his successor. Whom the Shia mourn as Muhsin ibn Ali, bayt among you like the ark of Noah among his folk? According to Shias, and I have been commanded by the Lord to call you unto Him. Arabic term referring to the consensus or agreement of the Muslim scholars basically on religious issues.

” New Delhi – i offer thanks to Allah for His mercies. When news of the meeting spread, o Prophet of God. For the book by Wilferd Madelung, ali was an heir and minister. After the deaths of Abu Bakr and two other Sunni leaders; perhaps someone older than you might respond to my call. Early Western scholars mistrusted the later narrations and reports, ali was the only one to answer Muhammad’s call. Introduction to Al – and kept his mission secret for its first three years. And call upon you to testify that there is no god but Allah, muhammad then asked the members of Banu Hashim a second time.

Law And Power In The Islamic World. Taken from Studies in Islamic Law and Society Volume 15: Studies in Islamic Legal Theory. Josef van Ess, Das Kitab al-nakt des Nazzam und seine Rezeption im Kitab al-Futya des Gahiz. The Doctrine of Ijma’: Is there a consensus? This page was last edited on 23 December 2017, at 19:29. For the book by Wilferd Madelung, see The Succession to Muhammad.

The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that divided the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Muslim history. Eventually, after the deaths of Abu Bakr and two other Sunni leaders, Umar and Uthman, the Sunni Muslims went to Ali for political leadership. After Ali died, his son Hasan succeeded him, both politically and, according to Shias, religiously. In addition to these two main branches, many other opinions also formed regarding succession to Muhammad. Most of Islamic history was transmitted orally until after the rise of the Abbasid Caliphate. Muhammad—his biography, perpetuated by community memory for it guidance. The development of hadith is a crucial element of the first three centuries of Islamic history.