Delavier”s stretching anatomy free pdf download

In human anatomy, the lower leg is the part of the delavier’s stretching anatomy free pdf download limb that lies between the knee and the ankle. The thigh is between the hip and knee and makes up the rest of the lower limb.

The term lower limb or “lower extremity” is commonly used to describe all of the leg. The calf is the back portion, and the tibia or shinbone together with the smaller fibula make up the front of the lower leg. Comparison between human and gorilla skeletons. Evolution has provided the human body with two distinct features: the specialization of the upper limb for visually guided manipulation and the lower limb’s development into a mechanism specifically adapted for efficient bipedal gait. Usually, the large joints of the lower limb are aligned in a straight line, which represents the mechanical longitudinal axis of the leg, the Mikulicz line. Some hip muscles also act on either the knee joint or on vertebral joints. Additionally, because the area of origin and insertion of many of these muscles are very extensive, these muscles are often involved in several very different movements.

The anterior dorsal hip muscles are the iliopsoas, a group of two or three muscles with a shared insertion on the lesser trochanter of the femur. The posterior dorsal hip muscles are inserted on or directly below the greater trochanter of the femur. The ventral hip muscles function as lateral rotators and play an important role in the control of the body’s balance. Because they are stronger than the medial rotators, in the normal position of the leg, the apex of the foot is pointing outward to achieve better support. All the adductors except gracilis insert on the femur and act on the hip joint, and so functionally qualify as hip muscles. There are four posterior thigh muscles.

The biceps femoris has two heads: The long head has its origin on the ischial tuberosity together with the semitendinosus and acts on two joints. Three of the anterior muscles are extensors. Of the posterior muscles three are in the superficial layer. The major plantar flexors, commonly referred to as the triceps surae, are the soleus, which arises on the proximal side of both leg bones, and the gastrocnemius, the two heads of which arises on the distal end of the femur. In the deep layer, the tibialis posterior has its origin on the interosseus membrane and the neighbouring bone areas and runs down behind the medial malleolus. On the dorsal side, two long extrinsic extensor muscles are superficial to the intrinsic muscles, and their tendons form the dorsal aponeurosis of the toes.

The short intrinsic extensors and the plantar and dorsal interossei radiates into these aponeuroses. The plantar muscles can be subdivided into three groups associated with three regions: those of the big digit, the little digit, and the region between these two. All these muscles are covered by the thick and dense plantar aponeurosis, which, together with two tough septa, form the spaces of the three groups. The abductor hallucis stretches along the medial edge of the foot, from the calcaneus to the base of the first phalanx of the first digit and the medial sesamoid bone. It is an abductor and a weak flexor, and also helps maintain the arch of the foot. The opponens digiti minimi originates from the long plantar ligament and the plantar tendinous sheath of peroneus longus and is inserted on the fifth metatarsal. When present, it acts to plantar flex the fifth digit and supports the plantar arch.

The four lumbricales have their origin on the tendons of the flexor digitorum longus, from where they extend to the medial side of the bases of the first phalanx of digits two-five. Except for reinforcing the plantar arch, they contribute to plantar flexion and move the four digits toward the big toe. Stretching prior to strenuous physical activity has been thought to increase muscular performance by extending the soft tissue past its attainable length in order to increase range of motion. Plantar flexion: One of the most popular lower leg muscle stretches is the step standing heel raises, which mainly involves the gastrocnemius, soleus, and the Achilles tendon.

Dorsiflexion: In order to stretch the anterior muscles of the lower leg, crossover shin stretches work well. Eversion and inversion: Stretching the eversion and inversion muscles allows for better range of motion to the ankle joint. The arteries of the leg are divided into a series of segments. In the pelvis area, at the level of the last lumbar vertebra, the abdominal aorta, a continuation the descending aorta, splits into a pair of common iliac arteries.

The artery enters the thigh as the femoral artery which descends the medial side of the thigh to the adductor canal. In the lower leg, the anterior tibial enters the extensor compartment near the upper border of the interosseus membrane to descend between the tibialis anterior and the extensor hallucis longus. The regions of the hip are all located in the thigh: anteriorly, the subinguinal region is bounded by the inguinal ligament, the sartorius, and the pectineus and forms part of the femoral triangle which extends distally to the adductor longus. Posteriorly, the gluteal region corresponds to the gluteus maximus.

The veins are subdivided into three systems. The deep veins return approximately 85 percent of the blood and the superficial veins approximately 15 percent. A series of perforator veins interconnect the superficial and deep systems. The sensory femoral branch supplies the skin below the inguinal ligament, while the mixed genital branch supplies the skin and muscles around the sex organ. The nerves of the sacral plexus pass behind the hip joint to innervate the posterior part of the thigh, most of the lower leg, and the foot. The lumbosacral trunk is a communicating branch passing between the sacral and lumbar plexuses containing ventral fibers from L4. The lower leg and ankle need to keep exercised and moving well as they are the base of the whole body.

The lower extremities must be strong in order to balance the weight of the rest of the body, and the gastrocnemius muscles take part in much of the blood circulation. There are a number of exercises that can be done to strengthen the lower leg. For example, in order to activate plantar flexors in the deep plantar flexors one can sit on the floor with the hips flexed, the ankle neutral with knees fully extended as they alternate pushing their foot against a wall or platform. This kind of exercise is beneficial as it hardly causes any fatigue.

Mountaineers have heightened risk for serious leg injuries. This is generally due to the lack of medical help in mountainous areas, as well as movement impairment restricting access to other medical services. Lower leg injuries are common while running or playing sports. Injuries to quadriceps or hamstrings are caused by the constant impact loads to the legs during activities, such as kicking a ball.