Design of machine elements pdf download

Shoulder screws, also known as shoulder bolts and stripper bolts, are machine screws with an integral shoulder or journal between the head and thread. Although they are not readily available in local hardware design of machine elements pdf download, shoulder screws are used extensively in industries from aerospace to consumer products because of their versatility and unique attributes when installed.

Shoulder screws have three main sections: head, shoulder, and thread. The head has the largest diameter, the shoulder is described by its diameter and length, and the thread has a major diameter slightly smaller than the shoulder diameter. When the thread of the shoulder screw is fully installed, the unthreaded shoulder extends beyond the surface into which the thread embeds. The shoulders give the screws their versatility by acting as shafts or dowels for rotating items such as bearings and bushings, axles for rolling parts, guides for sliding elements, and pivot points or mounting pins. Shoulder screws are often used in punch-and-die mechanisms or plastic-injection-mold sets. The screws act as linear slides to accurately align the die or mold halves as they open or close. In these applications, they are commonly called stripper bolts.

What makes shoulder screws unique is the mechanical components the shoulders can accommodate. Bearings mounted on shoulders create simple cam followers. Pulleys, gears, and sprockets can rotate at moderate speeds on shoulders. Shoulder-mounted springs can preload components traveling axially along the length of the shoulder. Shoulder screws are specified by shoulder diameter and then by shoulder length. The overall length of the shoulder screw includes the head height, the 1-in. The screws come in a wide range of shoulder diameters and lengths in both inch and metric sizes.

Many manufacturers offer custom or made-to-order screws. Commercial-grade shoulder screws in standard sizes — as specified by ASME B18. 3 for inch sizes and ASME B18. 3M for metric sizes — are available from most fastener and bearing distributors.

Most are produced by a cold-heading method that is most economical in quantities on the order of tens of thousands. For that reason, nonstandard sizes can be cost prohibitive. While commercial-grade shoulder screws used to be the industry standard, they are now being replaced in many applications by precision-grade screws. These have tighter shoulder-diameter and shoulder-length tolerances than commercial-grade screws, making them ideal for use with ball bearings and other precision components. A manufacturer of precision-grade shoulder screws can give engineers more flexibility when it comes to selecting shoulder screws.

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