Human factors in aviation 2nd edition pdf
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Our sites are currently under maintenance. This article is about culture as used in the social sciences and humanities. For uses in the natural sciences, see Cell culture and Tissue culture. Social and political organization varies between different cultures. Celebrations, rituals and patterns of consumption are important aspects of folk culture. Human symbolic expression developed as prehistoric humans reached behavioral modernity. Religion and expressive art are important aspects of human culture.
In the humanities, one sense of culture as an attribute of the individual has been the degree to which they have cultivated a particular level of sophistication in the arts, sciences, education, or manners. When used as a count noun, a “culture” is the set of customs, traditions, and values of a society or community, such as an ethnic group or nation. Culture is the set of knowledge acquired over time. In this sense, multiculturalism values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between different cultures inhabiting the same planet. Casey wrote, “The very word culture meant ‘place tilled’ in Middle English, and the same word goes back to Latin colere, ‘to inhabit, care for, till, worship’ and cultus, ‘A cult, especially a religious one.
To be cultural, to have a culture, is to inhabit a place sufficiently intensive to cultivate it—to be responsible for it, to respond to it, to attend to it caringly. 18th-century German thinkers, who were on various levels developing Rousseau’s criticism of “modern liberalism and Enlightenment”. In the words of anthropologist E. Tylor, it is “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.
The Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is “the way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time. The word is used in a general sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with symbols and to act imaginatively and creatively. The Beatles exemplified changing cultural dynamics, not only in music, but fashion and lifestyle. Over a half century after their emergence they continue to have a worldwide cultural impact.
An Assyrian child wearing traditional clothing. Cultural invention has come to mean any innovation that is new and found to be useful to a group of people and expressed in their behavior but which does not exist as a physical object. Cultures are internally affected by both forces encouraging change and forces resisting change. These forces are related to both social structures and natural events, and are involved in the perpetuation of cultural ideas and practices within current structures, which themselves are subject to change. Social conflict and the development of technologies can produce changes within a society by altering social dynamics and promoting new cultural models, and spurring or enabling generative action. These social shifts may accompany ideological shifts and other types of cultural change. Cultures are externally affected via contact between societies, which may also produce—or inhibit—social shifts and changes in cultural practices.
War or competition over resources may impact technological development or social dynamics. Additionally, cultural ideas may transfer from one society to another, through diffusion or acculturation. Acculturation has different meanings, but in this context it refers to replacement of the traits of one culture with those of another, such as what happened to certain Native American tribes and to many indigenous peoples across the globe during the process of colonization. Johann Herder called attention to national cultures. Enlightenment is man’s emergence from his self-incurred immaturity. He argued that this immaturity comes not from a lack of understanding, but from a lack of courage to think independently. Adolf Bastian developed a universal model of culture.
He proposed that a scientific comparison of all human societies would reveal that distinct worldviews consisted of the same basic elements. British poet and critic Matthew Arnold viewed “culture” as the cultivation of the humanist ideal. In practice, culture referred to an elite ideal and was associated with such activities as art, classical music, and haute cuisine. British anthropologist Edward Tylor was one of the first English-speaking scholars to use the term culture in an inclusive and universal sense. Europeans, following philosophers Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, contrasted “culture” with “the state of nature. Other 19th-century critics, following Rousseau, have accepted this differentiation between higher and lower culture, but have seen the refinement and sophistication of high culture as corrupting and unnatural developments that obscure and distort people’s essential nature. According to this theory, religion evolves from more polytheistic to more monotheistic forms.
The sociology of culture concerns culture as manifested in society. In the context of cultural studies, the idea of a text includes not only written language, but also films, photographs, fashion or hairstyles: the texts of cultural studies comprise all the meaningful artifacts of culture. Scholars in the United Kingdom and the United States developed somewhat different versions of cultural studies after the late 1970s. The British version of cultural studies had originated in the 1950s and 1960s, mainly under the influence of Richard Hoggart, E.
In the United States, Lindlof and Taylor write, “Cultural studies grounded in a pragmatic, liberal-pluralist tradition. The first group covers the variables that represent the “efficiency orientation” of the societies: performance orientation, future orientation, assertiveness, power distance and uncertainty avoidance. The second covers the variables that represent the “social orientation” of societies, i. These variables include gender egalitarianism, institutional collectivism, in-group collectivism and human orientation. The Tension in the Beautiful: On Culture and Civilization in Rousseau and German Philosophy”. Being after Rousseau: philosophy and culture in question. Intercultural Communication: Globalization and Social Justice.
Urban Sustainability in Theory and Practice: Circles of Sustainability. Thirty Years of Terror Management Theory. Religious Pluralism: An Indian Christian Perspective. Meaning in Action: Outline of an Integral Theory of Culture.